Puyi had a wet nurse (not shown) until age 14

Mandarin I Berkeley Extension Class 7 Oct. 18, 2011

425 Market Street
San Francisco, CA
Professor: Virginia Mau

Test 11/1 (next class): Comprehensive – First three lessons. Dictation and fill in blanks.
First part: pinyin. Second part: translation. Test 15 minutes “at most.”
Dec. 13: review for Final
Dec. 20: no class; take Final and go.

我会说一点儿普通话 = I can speak a little Mandarin.
Wo3 hui4 shuo1 yi4dian3 er pu3tong1hua4

點/点 = dot, speck, spot; point, degree
dian3

會/会 = be able to; be likely to; to assemble; to meet; to gather; group; association
hui4

說/说 = speak or say
shuo1

兒/儿 = non-syllabic dimi. suff.er (no tone)

普通話 / 普通话
= common tongue or Mandarin
pu3tong1hua4

点心 = dim sum (Ms Mau:“a little bit for your heart”)
dian3 xin1

羊城 = nickname for Guangzhou (literally “ram city”)
yang2 cheng2

More info: The Chinese abbreviation of Guangzhou is Sui (Sui; pinyin: sùi; Jyutping: seoi6;Yale: seuīh) or sometimes GZ. The city has the nicknames of Wuyangcheng (City of FiveRams), Yangcheng (City of Rams), Huacheng (City of Flowers), or Suicheng (City of Wheats).The city can also be referred to as the MuMianCheng (City of Ceiba).

(From http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=zh-CN&u=http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/29003692&ei=uzCnTp-UJ6LYiAKyws3QDw&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCIQ7gEwAA&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%25E7%25BE%258A%25E5%259F%258E%2Bis%2Bwhat%2Bcity%253F%26hl%3Den%26rlz%3D1G1GGLQ_ENUS314%26prmd%3Dimvns)

Good dim sum restaurants (Ms. Mau recommends):
Good Luck Dim Sum,
736 Clement, SF
SF Health rating: 91/100 May 18

Ratings for San Francisco restaurants:

http://dph-extranet2.sfdph.org:7777/pls/eeop_htmldb/f?p=132:1:468556353905016

Hong Kong Flower Lounge (owned by Mayflower company)
51 W MILLBRAE AVE, MILLBRAE
San Mateo Health rating: Fair (which is like a “C” in Health) and repeated investigations.

Ratings for San Mateo County restaurants:

http://decadeonline.com/insp.phtml?agency=smc&record_id=PR0025318

According to Dean D. Peterson PE, REHS

Director Environmental Health, San Mateo County:“A year ago we changed our rating system – we took out Average so we now have Excellent, Good, Fair and Poor and Closed. Basically if a facility has onemajor violation of a critical item (one that may lead to a food borne illness) they automatically drop to a Fair. So while we do not use lettering it is reasonable to associate the above to an A, B, C, D and F (closed).”

The most famous Daly City Dim Sum is Koi Palace.
On 3/4/2011 it got a “D” in health, or specifically a “poor.”

Popular restaurants with bad health are particularly disturbing to me, so I am publishing Koi Palace’s health rating just through 3/4/11 (in 6 pt. type because it is long with key phrases in 12 pt.) in order to educate the public and hopefully shame Koi Palace into, for example, properly identifying toxic substances.

“04/15/2011 INVESTIGATION0
4/05/2011 CONSTRUCTION/EQUIPMENT INSPECTION
03/22/2011 FOLLOWUP INSPECTION0
3/22/2011 ROUTINE /FACILITY STATUS CLOSURE

Adequate handwashing facilities supplied & accessi – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Toxic substances properly identified, stored, used – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food storage; food storage containers identified – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Equipment/Utensils – approved; installed; clean; g – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Equipment/Utensils – approved; installed; clean; g – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Equipment/Utensils – approved; installed; clean; g – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Equipment/Utensils – approved; installed; clean; g – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Hot and cold water available – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Minor

Food contact surfaces: clean and sanitized – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Approved thawing methods used, frozen food – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food in good condition, safe and unadulterated – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Demonstration of knowledge; food mgr certificate – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Proper eating, tasting, drinking or tobacco use – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Adequate handwashing facilities supplied & accessi – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Food contact surfaces: clean and sanitized – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Food contact surfaces: clean and sanitized – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Food contact surfaces: clean and sanitized – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Adequate handwashing facilities supplied & accessi – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Floors, walls and ceilings: built, maintained, and – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Floors, walls and ceilings: built, maintained, and – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Nonfood-contact surfaces clean – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Nonfood-contact surfaces clean – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Hands clean and properly washed; gloves used prope – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Food storage; food storage containers identified – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Hot and cold water available – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Nonfood-contact surfaces clean – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Premises; personal/cleaning items; vermin-proofing – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Approved thawing methods used, frozen food – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

No rodents, insects, birds, or animals – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Minor

Food contact surfaces: clean and sanitized – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Minor

Hands clean and properly washed; gloves used prope – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Adequate ventilation and lighting; designated area – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Warewashing facilities: installed, maintained, use – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Wiping cloths: properly used and stored – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Floors, walls and ceilings: built, maintained, and – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Floors, walls and ceilings: built, maintained, and – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Time as a public health control; procedures & reco – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Proper cooling methods – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Majo

Please note that vermin is considered “minor.”
Just to calibrate you: in San Mateo county,
“vermin not excluded” can still get you an “A” in health.

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE03/04/2011 ROUTINE /FACILITYSTATUS POOR

Adequate ventilation and lighting; designated area – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Nonfood-contact surfaces clean – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Nonfood-contact surfaces clean – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Nonfood-contact surfaces clean – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Nonfood-contact surfaces clean – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Equipment/Utensils – approved; installed; clean; g – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food contact surfaces: clean and sanitized – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Proper eating, tasting, drinking or tobacco use – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Sewage and wastewater properly disposed – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Minor

Food separated and protected – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food properly labeled & honestly presented – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Floors, walls and ceilings: built, maintained, and – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Floors, walls and ceilings: built, maintained, and – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Floors, walls and ceilings: built, maintained, and – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Floors, walls and ceilings: built, maintained, and – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Equipment/Utensils – approved; installed; clean; g – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Wiping cloths: properly used and stored – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Approved thawing methods used, frozen food – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Food storage; food storage containers identified – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Equipment/Utensils – approved; installed; clean; g – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Consumer self service – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Nonfood-contact surfaces clean – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Nonfood-contact surfaces clean – OUT OF COMPLIANCE

Hands clean and properly washed; gloves used prope – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Food contact surfaces: clean and sanitized – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Major

Proper hot and cold holding temperatures – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – MinorCompliance with shell stock tags, condition, displ – OUT OF COMPLIANCE – Minor”

People wait an hour in line for this restaurant. Would they, if they saw the above list (remember, it’s much longer)?If people are this ignorant about food safety, even though they are experienced eaters, why should we expect them to know anything about language even though they have spoken and written at least one language most of their lives? Like the seven blind men and the elephant, knowledge of one aspect of a complex process doesn’t assure gestalt. Yet people get angry if you try to inform them. Ignorance is only bliss to those who can make money off of it. Education is a constant process because things change. But now, with a few clicks, we
can know the health of every restaurant we go to. When you can die from cantaloupe, this seems important.

几点? = what time? Literally “How many dots?”—dots being the five-minute markers on a clock or watch.
ji3 dian3

七点 = 7 dot (7 a.m. or p.m.)
qi1 dian3

三点半
san1 dian3 ban4 = 3:30

半 = half; semi-; incomplete; (after a number) and a half; half

一刻 = 15 min. Literally “1/4 [of the hour]”
yi1 ke4

三刻 = 45 min. Literally “3/4 [of the hour]”
san1 ke4

刻 = quarter (hour); (a measure word); to carve; to engrave; to cut; oppressive
ke4

两点一刻 = 2:15
liang3 dian3 yi1 ke4

九点十四 = 9:14
jiu3 dian3 shi2 si4

上午 = a.m.
shang4 wu3

下午 = p.m.
xia4 wu3

鐘/钟 = o’clock
zhong1

凌 = encroach; soar; thick ice
ling2

晟 = clear, bright; splendor, brightness
shèng chéng jīng

Finally figured out which characters these were, but I can’t find what they mean together. Anyone get this?

Review from Class 2:

上 Shang4 = up. 下 Xia4 = down

早 上 Zao3 shang4 = morning (early)

上 午 Shang4 wu3 = Good day (10-noon, or 11-1 says Mandarin Tools)

下 午 Xia4 wu3 = afternoon.

晚 上 Wan3 shang4 = evening

三点五
san1 dian3 wu3 = 3:25 (the wu3 means 5 x 5 markers on the clock, hence 25)

四点零五
si4 dian3 ling2 wu3 = 4:05

零 : This seems like an awful lot of writing just to depict 0 (zero).

小时 = hour
xiao3 shi2

時/时 = o’clock; time; when; hour; season; period
shi2

分钟 = minute
fen1 zhong1

分 = to divide; minute; (a measure word); (a unit of length = 0.33 centimeter)

鐘/钟 = clock; time as measured in hours and minutes; bell
zhōng1

秒 = second
miao3

我不吃肉 = I don’t eat meat.
wo3 bu4 chi1 rou4

肉 = meat, flesh (remember that the moon/month character often stands in for flesh too: )

我吃蔌 = I eat vegetables
wo3 chi1 su4

Mrs. Mau quote: “My mom’s a vegetarian. She doesn’t even eat onions.” (Big laugh.) Apparently onions have enough human characteristics to warrant not eating due to their anthropomorphism. “Onion was transferred from some living creature from some Buddha… She’s going to be a vegetarian for three years. It’s going to expire Mar. 12.”
A new kind of vegan…

Wikipedia:
“East Asian “Buddhist” cuisine differ [sic] from Western vegetarian cuisine in one aspect, that is avoidance of killing plant life. Buddhist vinaya for monks and nuns prohibit harming of plants. Therefore, strictly speaking, root vegetables (such as potatoes, carrots or onion) are not to be used as this will result in death of vegetables.[citation needed] [dubious – discuss] Instead, vegetables such as beans or fruits are used. However, this stricter version of diet is often practiced only on special occasions.[citation needed]

Some Mahayana Buddhists in China, Japan and Vietnam specifically avoid eating strong-smelling plants, traditionally garlic, Allium chinense, asafoetida, shallot, and mountain leek, and refer to these as wǔ hūn (五荤, or ‘Five Acrid And Strong Smelling Vegetables’)or wǔ xīn (五辛 or ‘Five Spices’) as they tend to excite senses. This is based on teachings found in the Brahamajala Sutra, the Surangama Sutra and the Lankavatara Sutra (chapter8). In modern times this rule is often interpreted to include other vegetables of the onion genus, as well as coriander. This draws parallels with some sects of Hinduism, who also do not consume pungent tasting foods.”

我不吃蔌 = (with attitude) Don’t mess with me.
wo3 bu4 chi1 su4

外 = outside; in addition; foreign; external
wai4

外人
wai4 ren = outside person (Ms Mau: “When girls get married.”)

外语
wai4 yu3 = outside language

老師/老师 = teacher
lao3 shi1 (Ms. Mau: “Anyone born earlier than you, that person has something to teach you.” I think Ms.
Mau and I depart on this philosophy. I think everyone has something to teach you regardless of age.)

醫師/医师 = doctor (more respected)
yi1 shi1

醫生/医生 = doctor
yi1 sheng1

Does it strike you as interesting that there are hierarchies to respect in China? Two terms for doctor, but
one is a more respected doctor. Although our term “vice-president” has a similar feeling to it. Not only are you not the president, but you appear to have vices.

大夫
dai4 fu = “big man” = doctor

Note below that the same character has two different meanings, two different sounds:

奶妈 = wet nurse (“nurse” who has breast milk and feeds other people’s children)
nai3 ma

“Also known as nanny nanny, wet nurse, milk basking, Mother, ma old woman, Mama, breast, etc.,names varied, and different names for different times. But All in all, she is a breast-feeding exclusively for people with the baby’s line of business education.”— Google translated from http://baike.baidu.com/view/52726.htm

After I entered the search term 奶妈 and selected the first result.

Ms Mau: “Last emperor had one until he was 14.

Wikipedia says:“Puyi (simplified Chinese: 溥仪;traditional Chinese: 溥儀; pinyin: Pǔyí) (7 February1906 – 17 October 1967), of the Aisin Gioro clan, was the Last Emperor (末代皇帝).”

“Chosen by Dowager Empress Cixi while on her death-bed, [6] Puyi ascended the throne aged 2 years and 10months in December 1908 following his uncle’s death on 14 November. He was titled the Xuantong Emperor. Puyi’s introduction to emperorship began when palace officials arrived at his family household to take him. Puyi screamed and resisted as the officials ordered the eunuchs to pick him up.[14]

His wet-nurse, Wen-Chao Wang, was the only one who could console him, and therefore accompanied Puyi to the Forbidden City. Puyi would not see his real mother again for seven years. Puyi developed a special closeness with Wen-Chao Wang and credited her with being the only person who could control him. She was sent away when he was eight years old. After he married, he would occasionally bring her to the Forbidden City, and later Manchukuo, to visit him. After his special government pardon in 1959, he visited her adopted son and only then learned of her personal sacrifices to be his nurse. [15]”

In class, I pointed out that the second character in nai3 奶 was women’s breasts. Ms. Mau said, “Oh, I wrote it wrong, and she erased the “B” and wrote it again. I said, “It still looks like our capital ‘B.’”This character “woman + B” means “milk.” Milk only comes out of breast-like structures (actually monotremes have lactating patches, but I’ll bet you didn’t even know that, so no surprise this doesn’t show up in the written record).

The guy next to me says he thinks 乃 looks like a pregnant woman, but pregnant women do not have milk. In fact, if you’re lactating and then you get pregnant, you lose your milk. However, 乃 means “to be; thus; so; therefore; then; only; thereupon.” This is euphemistic for “the next thing to happen.” You get knocked up, you have a baby, you have milk.” They’re all related. And they were the most important thing to early man.

Funny how these things were so important, sex is still so important, yet we can’t even acknowledge that the meaning “milk” is depicted in Chinese as coming from women’s breasts. Are you beginning to understand the depths of our denial?

讀/读 = to read/to study
du2

唸/念 = read aloud
nian4

書/书 = book
shu1

念书 读书 = to read, to study
nian4 shu1 became du2 shu1, says Ms. Mau.

Perhaps because “nian” has a heart in its character and nian2 also means “beast,” this character is considered too animalistic/emotional, whereas “du” is one syllable, and it has “words,” “earth” and “boss.”

People who read become the boss. Plus even though 读 has more actual strokes than , it is a simpler design. And “du shu” rhymes. Humans like rhymes.

 

頭/头 = head; top; chief, first; boss
tou2 or tou
明白 = clear
ming2 bai2
明 = clear; bright; to understand; next; the Ming dynasty
ming2
= clear white; snowy; empty; blank; bright; clear; plain; pure; gratuitous
bai2
More over-clarification, but because each character means so many concepts, one needs to consider the intersection (think a Venn diagram) of the two characters’ meanings. For example, in the case of ming2 bai2, both have “clear” in their definitions, so together they reinforce that idea.
Ms. Mau said “Dong bu dong” without writing the characters on pinyin on the board (afairly common occurrence), so these are my best guesses:
懂 = to understand, to know
dong3
However, this phrase
懂不懂
dong3 bu3 dong3 
Ms. Mau said it means “you idiot,” but I could not find this. I did find something close:
动不动
{ dòng bu dòng }
① apt to happen (usually of sth undesirable) ② frequently ③ happening easily(e.g. accident or illness)
(According to www.internetslang.com/STH-meaning-definition.asp, “sth” means “something.”)
明不明白
ming2 bu3 ming2 bai2 (this is truncated from “ming2 bai2 bu3 ming2 bai2”) = Is it clear?
明白吗
ming2 bai2 ma? = understand?
Oddly enough, 吗 is the same symbol as for “morphine” though the tones are different (“morphine” is ma3). In the U.S. “horse” (what this simplified character represents) is slang for “heroin.” Perhaps because a drug is something you ride.
你明不明白 = You do not understand that?
ni3 ming2 bu4 ming2 bai2
明白了 = Understand =
ming2 bai2 le
懂了
 dong3 le
我不明白 = I do not understand =
wo3 bu ming bai2
不懂
 bu4 dong3
999 = 911 in China
Ms. Mau says “don’t touch old person who fell down [because they will say] ‘You pushed me’ and sue you.”
“Ground beef” is on the Chinese AP exam.
Ms. Mau says “ground beef is ‘niu2 rou4 mi2,” but I could only find this in one place.
牛肉糜
niü2 rou4 mi2
= dissolved; rice-gruel; wasted
mi2
Think if this as beef meat riced (OED: rice, verb: “To press (food, esp. cooked potato) through a coarse sieve or ricer to produce granular shapes or thin strings.”
Interesting that “lyse,” means “to cause dissolution or destruction of cells…” (Dictionary.com because OED uses a form of the word to define the word, which is kind of useless.)“Lye” is a related word. To rice or to lyse—both mean to destroy what was originally and convert to smaller components. Forget that they don’t come from a similar source. Just go with the fact that humans are simple, and we gravitate toward similar sounds for similar meanings. A good example of this is Santa Claus. Does it seem amazing that Santa Claus doesn’t have Santa Claustrophobia hanging around small spaces the size of  closets?
 
What a coincidence. Or has the idea of a benevolent unrelated man who gives presents to small children been around in any forms for a very long time? Wikipedia: “Santa Claus, orSanta, is a figure in North American culture who reects an amalgamation of the Dutch Sinterklaas, [1] the English Father Christmas, and Christmas gift-bringers in other traditions.” We also call him Saint Nick or Saint Nicholas. In the Netherlands they called him Saint Nick and he had a small boy slave called “Black Peter.” He seems pretty clearly a stand in for a Christian God that small children can practice on before the real thing, and, no surprise, there is a website out there saying exactly this: http://progressiveproselytizing.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-santa-claus-is-precursor-to.html

Phrases for ground beef:
碎牛肉 牛肉糜 绞细牛肉馅 牛绞肉
sui4 niü3 rou4
niü3 rou4 mi2
 jiao3 xi4 niü3 rou4
 niü3 jiao3 rou4

 

碎 = to break down; to break into pieces; fragmentary
sui4
餡/馅 = stuffing, forcemeat
绞细牛肉 = ground beef 
 jiao3 xi4 niü3 rou4
絞/绞 = hang (a criminal); to turn; to twist; to wind
jiao3
細/细 = fine; minutely; thin; slender
xi4
绞碎的牛肉 = minced beef 
 jiao3 sui4de niü3 rou4
绞肉机 = meat grinder
 jiǎo ròu jī 
Stockton & Columbus: East Wind Chinese book store
字典 = Dictionary
zi4 dian3
Dictionary organized in three different ways: pinyin, stroke order, radical
新华 = new China
xin2 hua2
華/华 = China
hua2
Ms. Mau: “The Chinese program at Harvard is the worst in the U.S.” I don’t know if this is true, but it wouldn’t surprise me. To learn something, you have to admit ignorance. How commonly is ignorance admitted at Harvard?
打開/打开
Da3 kai1 = open (note in the traditional character, on the left, the men2 gates, which are synonymous
with Fallopian tubes, have at their gates a battering ram type object, which would imply an “opener.”
几岁
 ji3 sui4 (sway) = What’s your age? (How old are you?)
歲/岁 = year; years old; (a measure word)
sui4
Note the similar shape and sound:
几九
 ji1 jiu3
你几岁 = How old are you? (Literally “you how many years old?”)
ni3 ji1 sui4 (Asked of ten years old and up)
你多大 = How old are you? (Literally “you how many big?”)
ni3 duo1 da (asked of 10 and younger)
Does it strike you as interesting that  duo1, which means “many; much; a lot of; numerous; multi-” designates an unspecified numerical amount more than 1, is represented by two identical characters acting as one, and the English word “duo” means “two.”An awful lot of coincidences…
笨 = stupid; foolish; silly; slow-witted; clumsy
ben4
笑 = laugh, smile
xiao4
哭 = to cry, to weep
ku4
Can you see the relationship of the above words? They are a kind of face.
foolish laugh cry
funny face, crinkly eyes open mouth crinkly eyes open eyes teardrop open mouth
  
本 roots or stems of plants; origin; source; this; the current; root; foundation; basis; (a measure word)
ben3
The cause of laughter is generally foolishness (note the 本 ben3 character at the root of  笨 ben  4). The underpinnings of comedy are people falling down and men in women’s clothing: this describes all children. Children were the first clowns. This can be seen in Chinese:

丑 = clown
chou3
母 = mother
mu3
妞 = little girl
niu1
Structurally, these three characters resemble each other. They seem to represent breasts (this is acknowledged by the “experts” in the case of  母 mu3 “mother,” and one can perceive dots of “fluid” inside the shapes representing breasts). Just like a man in woman’s clothing is funny, a man with breasts and no fluid in them is a clown:
no milk no milk milk
  
女 +丑= 妞
Note that “female” + “clown” = “little girl”—this is because only a little girl would have breasts and no fluid, otherwise this individual is a clown.
沒關係/没关系 = it doesn’t matter (no problem, de nada)
méi guān xi
關/关 = mountain pass; to close; to shut; to turn off; to concern; to involve
guan1
係/系 = be; connection; relation; tie up; bind, connect, to tie
xi4
Chinese characters and definitions from:

Jennifer Ball

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