For Jennifer Ball’s theory on the origins of language which takes a Darwinian approach to written scripts. Proposed:
That all ancient written languages reflect the importance of fertility and procreation to early man in similar, graphic ways. For more info, http://www.OriginofAlphabet.org
Abu-Lughod, Lila. Writing Women’s worlds: Bedouin stories. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.
Aria, Barbara. The Nature of Chinese Character: Gifts from the Earth. San Francisco, CA : Chronicle Books, 1992.
Betrò, Maria Carmela. Hieroglyphics, the Writings of Ancient Egypt. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996.
Blank, Hanne. Virgin: the Untouched History. New York: Bloomsbury, 2007.
Borror, Donald J. Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1960, 1988.
Bottéro, Jean; Finet, André; Lafont, Betrand; Roux, Georges; Translated by Nevill, Antonia. Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Bryson, Bill. The mother tongue : English & how it got that way. New York: W. Morrow, 1990.
Bryson, Bill. A Short History of Nearly Everything. New York: Broadway Books, 2005.
Campbell, Joseph. The Hero’s Journey. New York: A Mythology Ltd., 1989
Campbell, Joseph. Mythos, the Shaping of Our Mythic Tradition. Maryland: Acorn Media Group, Inc., 1996.
Campbell, Joseph. Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth. New York: Mystic Fire Video, 1988.
Capel, Anne K. (Editor), Glenn Markoe (Editor), Cincinnati Art Museum (Corporate Author), and Brooklyn Museum. Mistress of the House, Mistress of Heaven, Women in Ancient Egypt. Cincinnati: Cincinnati Art Museum, 1996.
Chang, Jung. Wild Swans. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 1991.
Charpin, Dominique. (Translated by Jan Marie Todd.) Reading and Writing in Babylon. USA: Harvard University Press, 2010.
Chua, Amy. Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. New York, Penguin Audio, 2011.
Coe, Michael D. Breaking the Maya Code. New York, Thames and Hudson, 1992.
Conley, Susan. The Foremost Good Fortune. New York, Knopf, 2011.
Crumb, R., illustrator. The Book of Genesis. USA: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2009.
Darwin, Charles; abridged and introduced by Richard E. Leakey; consultants, W. F. Bynum and J. A. Barrett. The Illustrated Origin of Species. New York: Hill and Wang, 1979.
Dehaene, Stanislas. Reading in the Brain: the science and evolution of a human invention. New York: Viking, 2009.
Dehaene, Stanislas. The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics. New York: Oxford University Press. 1997.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, germs, and steel: the fates of human societies. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997.
Diamond, Jared. The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.
Diamond, Jared. Why is sex fun?: the evolution of human sexuality. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
Doxiadis, Apostolos and Christos Papadimitriou. Logicomix: An Epic Search for Truth. USA: Bloomsbury, 2009.
Fallows, Deborah. Dreaming in Chinese. New York: Walker & Co, 2010.
Fischer, Steven Roger. History of Writing London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2001.
French, Marilyn; foreword by Margaret Atwood. From Eve to Dawn: a History of Women. New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 2008.
Friedman, David M. A Mind of Its Own, the Cultural History of the Penis. New York: The Free Press, 2001.
Fuller, Alexandra. Don’t Let’s Go to the Dogs Tonight: An African Childhood. New York and Toronto: Random House Trade Paperback, 2001, 2003.
Greenberg, Joseph Harold. A New Invitation To Linguistics. New York: Anchor Press, 1977.
Gardiner, Alan. Egyptian Grammar, Oxford: The University Press, 1927 (reprinted 1969).
Gladwell, Malcolm. Outliers: the story of success. New York: Hachette Audio, 2008. [sound recording]
Gladwell, Malcolm. Tipping Point. New York: Hachette Audio, 2007. [sound recording]
Harris, Rivkah. Gender and Aging in Mesopotamia, The Gilgamesh Epic and Other Ancient Literature. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. 2000. (Red River Books Edition, 2003).
Homer. The Odyssey, read by John Lee (unabridged). Maryland: Books on Tape, 2006.
Jacot de Boinod, Adam. The Meaning of Tingo and other extraordinary words from around the world. USA: The Penguin Press, 2006.
Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Lau, Theodora, Kenneth and Laura Lau. Best-Loved Chinese Proverbs, Second Edition. New York: HarperCollins, 1995, 2009.
Lefvre, Romana. Rude Hand Gestures of the World. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. 2011.
Leick, Gwendolyn. Sex & Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature. London: Routledge, 1994, 2003.
Levy, Howard S. Chinese Footbinding, The History of a Curious Erotic Custom. USA: Bell Publishing Company, a division of Crown Publishers, Inc., 1967.
Levitin, Daniel J. This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession. New York: Dutton, 2006.
Levitt, Steve D. and Stephen J. Dubner. Freakonomics : a rogue economist explores the hidden side of everything. New York: William Morrow, 2006. [sound recording]
Lunde, Paul, general editor. The Book of Codes: understanding the world of hidden messages : an illustrated guide to signs, symbols, ciphers, and secret languages. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009.
Macdonald, Fiona. Women in ancient Egypt. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1999.
McNaughton, William and Li Ying. Reading and writing Chinese: a guide to the Chinese writing system, the student’s 1,020 list, the official 2,000 list. Ruttland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1999.
Meyer, Michael. The Last Days of Old Beijing, Life in the Vanishing Backstreets of a City Transformed. New York, NY: Walker Publishing Company, 2008, 2009.
Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. New York: Ballantine, 1969, 1970.
Mitchell, Stephen and George Guidall (narrator). Gilgamesh [Unabridged Audio CD]. USA: Recorded Books, 2004.
Moser, Barry. Word Mysteries and Histories: From Quiche to Humble Pie. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1986.
Nissen, Hans J.; Peter Damerow, Robert K. Englund, and translated by Paul Larsen. Archaic Bookkeeping. USA: University of Chicago, 1993.
Pan, Lynn. Old Shanghai, Gangsters in Paradise. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions,  1984.
Peng, Tan Huay. Chinese radicals / concept and cartoons. Torrance, CA: Heian International, 1999.
Pinch, Geraldine. Egyptian Mythology, a guide to Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt. Oxford. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: how the mind creates language. New York: Perennial Classics, 2000.
Pinker, Steven. The Blank Slate: the modern denial of human nature. New York: Viking, 2002.
Pinker, Steven. The Stuff of Thought: language as a window into human nature. New York: Viking, 2007.
Pomeroy, Sarah B. Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves, Women in Classical Antiquity. New York: Schocken Books, 1975.
Potts, Malcolm and Roger Valentine Short. Ever Since Adam and Eve: the evolution of human sexuality. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Potts, Malcolm and Thomas Hayden. Sex and War, How Biology Explains Warfare and Terrorism and Offers a Path to a Safer World. Dallas: Benbella Books, 2008.
Roach, Mary. Bonk, The Curious Coupling of Science and Sex. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2008.
Robinson, Andrew. The Story of Writing: Alphabets, Hieroglyphs, & Pictograms, Second Edition. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1995, 2007.
Rothenstein, Julian and Mel Gooding. The Playful Eye, an album of visual delights. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. 1999.
Ruhlen, Merritt. A guide to the languages of the world. Volume 1: Classification. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1987, 1991.
Ruhlen, Merritt. On the Origin of Language, Studies in Linguistic Taxonomy. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994.
Ruhlen, Merritt. The Origin of Language: Tracing the Evolution of the Mother Tongue. New York: Wiley, 1994.
Sacks, David. Language Visible. Unraveling the mystery of the alphabet from A to Z. New York: Broadway Books, 2003.
Sacks, Oliver. Musicophilia, Tales of Music and the Brain. USA Random House Audio Publishing Group (Books on Tape), 2007
Sampson, Geoffrey. Writing Systems. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1985.
Sandison, David. The art of ancient Egypt. San Diego, CA: Laurel Glen Pub., 1997.
Schiff, Stacy. Cleopatra: A Life. New York: Back Bay Books/Little Brown and Co., 2010, 2011.
Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. Before Writing, From Counting to Cuneiform, Vol. I, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1992.
Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. Before Writing, A Catalog of Near Eastern Tokens, Vol. II, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1992
Schmandt-Besserat, Denise and Michael Hays. The History of Counting. New York: Morrow Junior Books, 1997.
Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. When Writing Met Art: From Symbol to Story. Texas: University of Texas Press, 2007.
Shaarawi, Huda; translated, edited, and introduced by Margot Badran. Harem Years: the memoirs of an Egyptian feminist (1879-1924). New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1986, 1987.
Shaw, Ian. The Oxford Guide to Ancient Egypt. New York : Oxford University Press, 2004.
Shlain, Leonard. The Alphabet Versus the Goddess: The Conflict Between Word and Image. New York: Viking, 1998.
Shlain, Leonard. Time, Sex, and Power; How Women’s Sexuality Shaped Evolution. USA: Penguin, 2004.
Smith, David Livingstone. The most dangerous animal : human nature and the origins of war. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2007.
Sobel, Dava. Longitude. Santa Ana, CA : Books on Tape, 2005.
Sobel, Dava. A More Perfect Heaven, How Copernicus Revolutionized the Cosmos. New York: Recorded Books Productions, 2011.
Spigelman, Art. Maus: a survivor’s tale I : my father bleeds history. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986.
Spigelman, Art. Maus : a survivor’s tale, II : and here my troubles began. New York: Pantheon Books, 1991.
Stol, M. Cuneiform Monographs: Birth in Babylonia and the Bible, Its Mediterranean setting. (With a Chapter by F.AM. Wiggermann). Groningen: Styx Publications, 2000.
Stray, Geoff. The Mayan and other Ancient Calendars. New York: Walker and Company, 2007.
Tedlock, Dennis. Popol Vuh, the Definitive Edition of the Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life and the Glories of Gods and Kings. New York: Touchstone, 1985, 1996.
Thornhill, Randy and Craig T. Palmer. A natural history of rape: biological bases of sexual coercion. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press, 2000.
Trask, R.L. and Bill Mayblin. Introducing Linguistics, a graphic guide. UK: Icon Books Ltd., 2009 (originally 2000).
Tyldesley, Joyce. Chronicles of the Queens of Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson, 2006.
Valenze, Deborah. Milk. Michigan: Sheridan Books for Yale University Press, 2011.
Voltaire. Candide. UK: CSA word, 2010 (Audiobook: Midwest Tape, LLC)
Wang (汪春), Chun. Chinese Characters In Pictures (Hua Shuo Han Zi 画说汉字) Beijing : Hua yu jiao xue chu ban she (华语教学出版社), 2005.
Weiner, Eric. The Geography of Bliss: One Grump’s Search for the Happiest Places in the World. New York: Twelve, 2008.
Williams, C.A.S. Chinese Symbolism and Art Motifs, A Comprehensive Handbook on Symbolism in Chinese Art Through the Ages. Singapore: Tuttle Publishing 2006 (first published in 1941).
Wilson, Penelope. Hieroglyphs: A Very Short Introduction. England: Oxford University Press, 2003
Wolf, Maryanne. Proust and the Squid, the Story and Science of the Reading Brain. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.
Xinran, Message from an Unknown Mother, Stories of Loss and Love. New York: Scribner, a division of Simon and Schuster, 2011 (by The Good Woman of China, Limited).
Xinran, The Good Women of China, Hidden Voices. New York: Anchor Books, a division of Random House, 2002, 2003.
Yalom, Marilyn. History of the Breast. New York: Alfred A. Knopf: Distributed by Random House, 1997.
Yalom, Marilyn. History of the Wife. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.
Zak, Paul J. The Moral Molecule: The Source of Love and Prosperity. New York: Dutton, 2012.
Barney, Stephen A. (Translator), W. J. Lewis (Translator), J. A. Beach (Translator), Oliver Berghof (Translator). The Etymologies of Isidore of Seville. England: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Barnhart, Robert K. Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology. USA: HarperCollins Publishers, 1995.
Bowman, K. , et al. Oxyrhynchus: A City and Its Texts (Graeco-Roman Memoirs). London: Egypt Exploration Society, 2007.
Budge, E. A. Wallis. Ancient Egyptian Language: Easy Lessons in Egyptian Hieroglyphics With Sign List. Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1975.
Campbell, Joseph with Bill Moyers. The Power of Myth. USA: Doubleday, 1988.
Casselman, William G. Dictionary of Medical Derivations: The Real Meaning of Medical Terms. UK: Parthenon Publishing, 1998.
Coulmas, Florian. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems, UK: Blackwell Publishing, 1996, 1999.
Diringer, David. The Alphabet: A Key to the History of Mankind. USA: Philosophical Library, Inc., 1948.
Dorland, W. A. Newman, A.M., M.D. The American Pocket Medical Dictionary, Fourteenth Addition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1930.
Harbaugh, Richard. Chinese Characters: A Genealogy and Dictionary (English and Mandarin Chinese Edition). USA: Yale University Press, 1998.
Lewinsohn, Richard. The History of Sexual Customs. USA: Longmans, Green and Co., 1958.
Onions, C.T., et al. The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966, 1979.
Pflughaupt, Laurent. Letter by Letter, an Alphabetical Miscellany. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2007.
Reinisch, June M., Ph.D. and Ruth Beasley, M.L.S. The Kinsey Institute New Report on Sex. USA: The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, 1990, 1994.
Ryken, Leland, et al. Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. USA: InterVarsity Press, 1998.
Schäfer, Heinrich, Emma Brunner-Traut, and John Baines. Principles of Egyptian Art. Oxford: Calendon Press, 1974.
Schein, Louisa. Minority Rules, The Miao and the Feminine in China’s cultural politics. USA: Duke University Press, 2000.
Schmandt-Besserat, Denise. How Writing Came About. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1992, 1996.
Tsang, O. Z. A Complete Chinese-English Dictionary.
Xun, Liu, Zhang Kai, Liu Shehui, Chen Xi, Zuo Shandan, and Shi Jiawei. New Practical Chinese Reader, Textbook. China: Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 2010.
Xun, Liu, Zhang Kai, Liu Shehui, Chen Xi, Zuo Shandan, and Shi Jiawei. New Practical Chinese Reader, Workbook. China: Beijing Language and Culture University Press, 2010.
Websites used in support of this work:
Akkadian Dictionary (http://www.premiumwanadoo.com/cuneiform.languages/dictionary)
Akkadian cuneiform (http://www.alain.be)
Cantonese Dictionary Project (http://www.cantonese.sheik.co.uk/dictionary/)
Chinese Characters: A Genealogy and Dictionary (http://www.zhonwen.com/)
Chinese Text Project (http://ctext.org/dictionary)
Cojak 9 http://www.cojak.org )
Google Translate (https://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=GOOGLE+TRANSLATE&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8)
Mandarin Online Tools (http://www.mandarintools.com)
Modern Chinese Character Frequency List现代汉语单字频率列表 (http://lingua.mtsu.edu/chinese-computing/statistics/char/list.php?Which=MO)
Oxford English Dictionary online (OED.com)
Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary (http://psd.museum.upenn.edu)
Hebrew and Greek lexicons (via Strong’s Concordance online)
Transtar Translation (http://www.stars21.com/translator)
UCLA Sumerian database (http://www.cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html)
Native Chinese Speakers consulted:
Lin, Eva. Researcher at Genentec
Shen, Zhenhai. Researcher at Genentech
Wang, Gina Xiaojing. Researcher at Genentech
Zhou, Angela. Researcher at Genentech
Zhu, Bing-Yan. Researcher at Genentech
Three-hundred-fifty-five Chinese college students who I have taught English (and so much more!)
Joseph Campbell and the Power of Myth (1988).
(There are two stories, roughly an hour apart, that involve women and snakes in this video. The first has illustrations accompanying, and it tells of a woman who decides to marry out of her community. Her new husband disappears at night and a snake shows up, slides onto her lap, and she is ordered by it to pick off the lice. (I’m not making this up, watch the video.) As my husband said, “What snake would have lice?” Only one with pubic hair. When the man comes back, he says, “Were you afraid of me in my snake form?” Hmm….Campbell has a little smile, but the obvious phallic imagery of this is never discussed. Nor is it discussed the second time. It’s the elephant in the room. Or the snake with lice. Campbell and Moyer never mention it. Why? Because we’re hesitant to acknowledge sexual situations for fear we will be accused of projecting our own prurient interests. But sex is what got all us 7.4 billion people here so far, and myth is full of it. The more we recognize our base behavior, the more able we are to rise above it.)
Fiction and previous readings which have informed my work:
Carroll, Lewis. (All his fiction; I’m a fan of Charles Dodgson’s.)
Beckett, Samuel. Waiting for Godot
Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying
Faulker, William. Sound and the Fury
Haddon, Mark. The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time
Hofstader, Douglas. Gödel, Escher, Bach: the Eternal Golden Braid
Jin, Ha. Waiting: A Novel
Kingsolver, Barbara. The Poisonwood Bible
Kwok, Jean. Girl in Translation
Lewycka, Marina. A Short History of Tractors in Ukrainian
Martel, Yann. Life of Pi
Park, Suzan-Lori. Getting Mother’s Body
Phillips , John Aristotle. Mushroom: The story of the A-bomb kid
Platt, Kin. Sinbad and Me
See, Lisa. Snow Flower and The Secret Fan